ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ︵ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ︶ ︵ᠨᠢᠭᠡ︶
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ᠄
2016-04-13
      ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠦᠩᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ   ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ   ᠤ   ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ   ᠪᠤᠯ     ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨ   ᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭ᠂ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ᠂ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ 40 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ ᠡᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ 26 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ ᠮᠦᠰᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠡᠭᠭᠡᠵᠤ 12.5 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ  ᠃ ︵ᠺᠤᠴᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠤᠪ 1965.3︶   ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ   ︽ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ︾᠂ ︽ᠱᠠᠭᠵᠠᠮᠤᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ︾ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ︽ᠱᠠᠬᠢᠮᠤᠨᠢ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠺᠷᠢᠲ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠤ ︽ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ︾ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ Buddha ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠺᠷᠢᠲ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ︽ᠳ᠋᠊︾ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ︽ᠷ᠊︾ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ   ︽ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ︾   ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ︽ᠱᠠᠭᠵᠠ︾ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ︽ᠱᠢᠭᠡ  ︾ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤ ᠤᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ︽ᠱᠠᠺᠢᠶᠠ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ︵ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠤ︶ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ  ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ  ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠄ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠷᠳᠢᠨᠴᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠽᠠᠮᠪᠤᠳᠢᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠦᠯᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠪᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠳᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠦᠬᠡᠷᠡᠵᠤ᠂ ᠦᠴᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠳᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢᠷᠡᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠯᠳᠡᠪ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠤ ᠡᠬᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃             ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠨ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠤ ︽ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤ  ︾ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠤᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠂᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠯᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ  ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠬᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ 2900 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠭᠰᠡᠨ 2500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1956 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠨ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ 29 ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠳᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ︵ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠬᠦ᠂   ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠬᠦ᠂ ᠦᠳᠡᠯᠬᠦ᠂ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ︶ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠪᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠦᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ  ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠦᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠳᠦᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠂᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ᠄             — ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠰᠸᠠᠨᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠠᠰᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠰᠤᠭᠠᠢ᠃           — ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠬᠦᠯᠰᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃           — ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠮᠦᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠭᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠯᠭᠡᠰᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃         — ᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠭᠴᠦ ᠤᠮᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠰᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃       ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ 35 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ᠂᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ 56 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠰᠬᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠮᠬᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ  ᠃ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ  ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠯᠤᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠠ ︵ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ︶ 80 ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠳᠡᠷ ᠵᠤᠭᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠠᠬᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠷᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠳᠮᠠᠰᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠯᠢᠩᠬᠸ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠮᠦᠨ 41 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠮᠠᠨᠽᠤᠰᠢᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠨᠤᠮᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢ 400 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠠᠺᠠᠷᠵᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠰᠦᠮᠪᠤ ᠪᠠᠨᠳᠢᠳᠠ ︽ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠯᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠮᠤᠳᠤᠨ  ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠄ ︽ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠨᠠᠺᠠᠷᠵᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠬᠤᠯᠢᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ︾ ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃           ᠨᠠᠺᠠᠷᠵᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ   ︽ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠯ︾ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ︽ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ  ︾ ︵ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠴᠡᠷᠢᠨ᠂ 1981᠂ 125︶ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠲᠠᠰᠢᠷᠡᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ  ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠺᠠᠷᠵᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤᠮᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠤᠳᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠺᠠᠷ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠤᠨ   ︽ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠳᠤ︾ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠩ ᠬᠤᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ  ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠡᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ   ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠮᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠢᠪᠦ᠋᠂ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃           ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ   ᠠᠵᠢ᠃           ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠦᠶᠠᠯᠢ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃           ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ   ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠩᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠬᠤ  ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ︽ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤᠷ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠰᠤᠭᠳᠤᠨ︕ ᠤᠶᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠢ ᠴᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ  ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠮᠯᠠᠰᠤᠭᠠᠢ   ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ   ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ   ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ   ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ︽ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠢᠬᠦᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠤᠪᠠᠳᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠤ   ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠩᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠬᠢᠳᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ︽ ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠢᠨᠤ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠪᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠬᠠᠯ︾   ᠶᠤᠮ᠃             ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ︽ᠴᠤᠬᠠᠭ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠮ  ︾ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠬᠢᠳᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ 108 ᠪᠤᠳᠢ ᠦᠨᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠯᠭᠢᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ  ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠬᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠠᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠷᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ︵ᠦᠷᠦᠨᠡᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᡁᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ︶ ᠵᠤᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠪᠢᠷᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠡ ᠮᠦᠷᠬᠦᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠳᠠᠢ  ᠃         ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ᠄ ᠮᠠᡁᠠᠶᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠨᠡᠶᠡᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠮᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ᠂ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠦᠮᠪᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠪᠤ ᠢᠰᠢᠪᠠᠯᠵᠤᠷ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠢ   ︽ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠤᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠠᠩᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠪᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠨ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠬᠦᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ  ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃           ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯᠳᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠰᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ 1073 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠤᠨᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠨ᠃ ᠰᠠᠰᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ  ᠳᠤ 14 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃           ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠨᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃           ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠩᠳᠠᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ︵801 — — 842︶ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ   ᠬᠠᠷᠬᠢᠰᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠵᠤ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠡᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ  ᠤ ᠤᠷᠬᠢᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃           ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠮᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ  ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠽᠦᠡᠭᠺᠡᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠳᠠᠭᠪᠠ ︵1357 — 1419︶ ᠶᠤᠮ  ᠃         ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠩᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ  ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠨ ᠪᠢᠳᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠳᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂᠂           ᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ︵1358︶ ᠲᠤᠷᠤᠨᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠨᠳᠤᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ  ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠪᠠ  ᠃           ᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠠ ᠯᠠᠮᠷᠢᠶᠠᠮᠴᠢᠨᠪᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ︽ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠳᠢ ᠮᠦᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ︾ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃       ᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠨ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ︽ᠦᠢᠯᠨ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠢ  ︾ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠡ᠂ ᠮᠢᠯᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠽᠤᠩᠺᠡᠪᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠰᠢᠪ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠦᠨᠡᠶᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ  ᠃             ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠳᠠᠷ ᠴᠠᠳᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ   ᠡᠬᠦᠨ  ᠤ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ︽ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ︾ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠡᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠷᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠡᠯᠡᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ︽ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠳᠢᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠨ ᠢᠡᠭᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ  ᠃             ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ᠂ ᠦᠯᠢᠬᠡᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠬᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯ 14 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠬᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠴᠤᠶᠢᠵᠢᠡᠤᠳᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠨ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ︽ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ  ︾ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠳᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠮᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠪᠰᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨᠳᠡᠮᠤᠷ ︵1276 — — 1328︶ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 5 — 8 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠩᠺᠡᠲ —   ᠫᠧᠲᠷᠪᠦᠷᠡᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ︵ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ︶                                     ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ    
 
ᠢᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠄ ᠣᠩᠨᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠰᠥᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ
 
 
ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ
 
2014-2015 ©  ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠡᠭᠠᠯ ᠰᠣᠹᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠲᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠦᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ 蒙ICP备14003692号